The first 5 paragraphs describe the decorated baroque and viol bows available with fluted or reeded sticks and carved heads. I do make other models apart from those described below, so the list is not exhaustive.

Frog material is generally snakewood which works well, being hard and dense. Some ebony is used. The only ivory I currently use is mammoth ivory.


a) Copy of Number 19 in the Ashmolean Museum Collection, Oxford. This is a late 17th Century bow with a clip in frog. However I do usually modify it by adding a screw, although the clip-in version can always be made. Bow length 70.5cms; playing hair 56cms; weight 50-53 grams; round stick, reeded in area where held; carved or plain head (height 10mm); outcurved when tightened; all snakewood.

b) Copy of bow circa 1720. A fluted bow, a little longer, heavier and less outcurved than the above. Length 72.5cms; playing hair 59cms; weight 52-55 grams; upper part of stick fluted, lower part octagonal; carved head (height 12mm); stick slightly outcurved when tightened; all snakewood. This is a very popular general baroque bow.

c) Copy of Number 23 in the Ashmolean Collection, Oxford. This is a mid 18th Century bow; another good general purpose early music bow suitable for both baroque and early classical. Length 70cms; playing hair 59.5cms; weight 54-57 grams; upper part of stick fluted, carved head (height 17mm); incurved when tightened; snakewood stick; ebony or snakewood frog and button.

d) Early 17th Century 'twig' bow, well outcurved and with clip in frog. Length 63cms; playing hair 53cm; weight 43 grams; round stick and plain head (height 8mm); snakewood stick; ebony frog. Very much a specialist bow.


These follow the patterns of the above bows. The lengths are the same, but weights range from 56 to 65 grams; head heights generally 2mm greater.


Again these follow broadly the patterns of the above violin bows.

Type a) Length 71cms; playing hair 56cms; weight 72-76 grams; head height 15mm.

Type b) Length 73cms; playing hair 59cms; weight 75-80 grams; head height 18mm.

Type c) Length 72cms; playing hair 59cms; weight 76-81 grams; head height 21mm.


a) A longer earlier type, also suitable for violone; length 75-77cms; playing hair 57-59cms; weight about 120 grams; head height 22mm; all snakewood; fluted or round; stick slightly incurved.

b) A later type; length 72-74cms; as above but stick more incurved; a heavier bow also.

c) Model with German type frog; a quite heavy bow, up to 140 grams.


These have generally been based on No. 20 in the Ashmolean Museum Collection, albeit without all the profuse decoration of the original and a simpler frog. This is an 18th Century French bass viol bow with fluted stick and carved head which plays excellently, and the tenor and treble bows based on it are equally successful. The stick is slightly outcurved.

Round stick viol bows are of a more authentic 17th Century pattern - a little more outcurved, and clip-in frogs are optional. There is also a long style French bass bow (80cms, 80 grams)

All bows are snakewood throughout, with the option of mammoth ivory frogs.


These are based on English historical models - particularly John Dodd.

a) Violin, viola, cello, double bass, c1790: These models have open ebony frogs in Dodd's more decorative style. The ebony buttons are octagonal but without any silver rings. The heads are copies of Dodd's many styles and are unfaced generally. There is no metal in the bows apart from the screws and this makes the bows lighter than their modern counterparts. Lapping is a pattern of blue thred and silver wire. Average weights are: violin 54 grams; viola 62 grams; cello 74 grams; bass 115 grams. Sticks are good quality pernambuco.

b) Later classical bows - early 19th Century - have additions such as ferrules and slides and facing on the head. I have details of various historical bows, and copies have been made.